Treatment: Electrotherapy or Electro Physical Agents (EPA)

Electrotherapy or Electro Physical Agents (EPA)  is one component of physiotherapy treatment techniques or modalities. Some examples of EPA are

  • Therapeutic Ultrasound frequency used typically from 0.7 to 3.3 MHz. Therapeutic ultrasound has to two desired effects. The first is the thermal (heat) effects as the tissues (primarily by connective tissue: ligaments, tendons, and fascia ) absorb energy. The thermal effect encourages blood flow that aid in tissue repair and ease muscle tension. The second is the cavitational effects from microscopic air bubbles that form. The formation and collapse of these microscopic air bubble cause vibrations that stimulates cell membranes. This physical stimulation appears to enhance the cell-repair effects of the inflammatory response.
  • TENS or Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation currently is one of the most commonly used forms of electroanalgesia. It works by:
    1. On a high frequency, by selectively stimulating certain ‘non-pain’ nerve fibres to send signals to the brain that block other nerve signals carrying pain messages.
    2. On low frequencies, by stimulating the production of endorphins, natural pain-relieving hormones.
  • EMS (Electrical Muscle Stimulation) or NMES (Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation) affects muscle contraction through electrical impulses. It helps prevent muscles atrophy from disuse.


Core Concepts