10% of people suffering with elbow pain, diagnosed as Tennis Elbow, were found to have co-existing nerve compression.
(Brotzman & Wilk, 2007) Tennis Elbow (Medial Epicondylitis)
An overuse injury of the tendon(s) of particular forearm muscles on the outer part of the elbow. Overuse, usually from gripping-type activity, causes micro-tears (tendinosis), leading to pain and function loss. (The diagnosis of Tennis Elbow by itself excludes the presence of nerve compression). Common Signs
- Gradual onset of symptoms
- Pain over the outer part of elbow
- Pain caused by gripping/wringing/twisting actions
- Pain eases with rest
- 30-55 year olds most affected
- 95% of cases in non-tennis players
- Poor technique: any activity involving gripping/wringing/twisting action
- Equipment fault: e.g. racquet grip size, string tension
The Radial Nerve passes around the outer part of the elbow. Compression commonly takes place at 4 sites along this path. This can be due to muscular tightness, bone/ligament scarring, damage or a combination of the above, and can co-exist with Tennis Elbow
. This can ‘complicate’ the picture as the symptoms often mimic Tennis Elbow, making diagnosis more difficult. If nerve compression is present it is likely that recovery will also take longer. Some additional signs and symptoms may be present with Radial Nerve compression. These include: Pain mimic’s Tennis elbow – but worse with rotation activity of the wrist.
Treatment for Nerve Compression Activity modification:
- Pain at rest
- Can have paraesthesia in the hand and lateral forearm.
- Pain over mid-upper humerus.
- Pain resisting turning the palm upwards (elbow at 90 deg).
- Positive nerve conduction study
stop/reduce gripping and repetitive activities that are painful. Lifting should be done with palms facing upwards whenever possible. Correction of bio-mechanics:
Correction of technique if required. Correcting ergonomics of e.g. workstation. Anti-Inflammatories (NSAIDS):
Brotzman and Wilk (2007), suggest use of Celebrex or Ibruprofen, but only in acute phase to reduce inflammation. Icing:
10-15 mins 4-6 x daily in acute phase. Stretching:
If the compression is due to muscular tightness, stretching the effected muscles is of importance. Physiotherapist:
your physiotherapist will establish what is the cause of your symptoms, and will provide appropriate treatment. This may include joint mobilization, scar management, nerve mobility exercises, postural education, and myofascial release. Additional Information
There are of course other causes of elbow pain. Below is a table of the 4 most common causes of elbow pain, and their defining symptoms
| ||Type/Site ||PhysiotherapyTest ||Neurological Signs |
|Tennis Elbow ||Well localised pain ||Mills, Crozen, Maudsley ||None |
|Joint pain ||Generalised elbow pain ||Compression through joint ||None |
|Referred from the neck ||Diffuse outer arm pain, neck pain/stiffness ||Reduced neck ROM, Spurlings test +ve ||May be abnormal, Neural tension |
|Radial Nerve ||Vague, diffuse forearm ache. Pain at rest ||Resisted long-finger ext, forearm supination ||Paresthesia in the first web space (5-10% of pt’s) |
Brotzman, S., & Wilk, K. 2007 Handbook of Orthopaedic Rehabiliitation. Mosby, USA. Brukner, p., & Khan K. (200..) Clinical Sports Medicine